Operations Reports

Steering Group Operations

Common Grid Model

To guarantee the effcient operation of the end-to-end electrical systems, transmission system operators (TSOs) need complex operational planning approaches across time horizons from several years to the day ahead of delivery; at hourly intervals on the day of delivery as well as in real time.​

These complex operational planning processes, require TSOs to build mathematical models of their grid through consistent data structures. These models allow them to run situational awareness simulations of their grids integrating market schedules with representations of the different elements of infrastructure in service. This simulation process is continuous and iterative across the various time horizons. It ensures constant optimisation of the grid usage while maintaining the security of the system, and thus of electricity security of supply.

The ultimate objective is to have the highest quality forecasts of electricity ows across the pan-European electrical system.

Download information

Continental Europe

Reports and publications below concern ENTSO-E’s synchronous Continental Europe zone.

2018 Reports

2017 Reports

Inertia report

The report analyses the impact of reduced system inertia of the power system of Continental Europe caused by a shift of generation from classical synchronous generation to power-electronic based non-synchronous generation. By performing calculations with a mean frequency dynamic model, responses are given with respect to the required Limited Frequency Sensitive Mode response to Over frequency (LFSM-O) by using the admissible rate of change of system frequency (RoCoF) as one of the main input parameters.

Inertia Report

Blackout in Turkey on 31st March 2015

The detailed report on the third serious event in the Continental European power system within the last 15 years analyses the general system conditions, the sequence of events, the main causes, the critical factors, the power system restoration, the short term and medium term measures and, conclusions and recommendations.

Final report on the Blackout in Turkey 31st March 2015 (V1.0)

Wide Area Monitoring – Current Continental Europe TSOs Applications Overview (September 2015)

The report reflects the current use of Wide Area Monitoring application and tools within the Continental European system. It can be expected that future cooperation and coordination between TSOs will lay the foundation of a more comprehensive system observability.

Download Wide Area Monitoring Report (V5)

Dynamic Line Rating for Overhead Lines​ (May 2015)

Based on the need to use more intensively the transmission system infrastructure TSOs have started to investigate which measures are suitable in order to reach this goal.

One of the possible options is the dynamic line rating. This technique allows to gain variable transmission line limits by using environmental cooling or heating conditions as one major input factor.

This report aims to provide an overview of the different ways that TSOs implement this technique in overhead lines.

Download the Dynamic Line Rating for Overhead Lines​ V6 - Continental Europe TSOs Current Practice​

Compliance Monitoring


Compliance Monitoring Program 2016​:


Compliance Oversight Report 2015:

Compliance Monitoring Program 2015:


Compliance Oversight Report 2014:

Compliance Monitoring Program 2014:

2009 - 2013


Compliance Oversight Report 2013:

Compliance Monitoring Program 2013:


Compliance Oversight Report 2012:

Compliance Monitoring Program 2012:


Compliance Oversight Report 2011:

Compliance Monitoring Program 2011:


Compliance Oversight Report 2010:

Compliance Monitoring Program 2010:


Compliance Oversight Report 2009:

Compliance Monitoring Program 2009:

The Impact of Dispersed Generation on Continental Europe’s Security of Supply

Some European countries currently have large capacities on installed dispersed generation units. However, the frequency protection settings of these units for automatic disconnection from the grid are no longer in line with standard disconnection limits within the transmission system.

The ENTSO-E System Protection & Dynamics Subgroup, under the Continental Europe Regional Group, has carried out a study on this issue: “Dispersed Generation Impact on Continental Europe Region Security”.

Mostly of the renewable type, these generating units are as a rule, connected to distribution systems and have been subjected to connection requirements compliant with the historical planning and operating principles of distribution systems originally designed for passive loads. If simultaneously applied to a large number of units, such unique frequency thresholds can jeopardise the security of the entire interconnected system if there are frequency deviations.

Germany and Italy have undertaken large programs to retrofit the majority of their existing non-compliant units, which should be completed by end-2014. The results of this ENTSO-E study show that in case of maximum power production of dispersed units, and until the on-going retrofit programs are complete, the frequency gradient after massive disconnection of distributed generation is so high that the first step of under-frequency load shedding is not sufficient to prevent the frequency collapsing.

The ENTSO-E study’s simulations also demonstrate that while completion of the German and Italian retrofit programs significantly reduces the likelihood of load shedding, the probability of triggering load shedding remains significant. Therefore, additional retrofit programs in other European countries are needed to avoid reaching the load shedding threshold.

Download the last report update through the link below. The next update will be published in 2015

Dispersed Generation Impact on Continental Europe Region Security

Earlier Reports

Dispersed Generation Impact on Continental Europe Region Security

ENTSO-E Initial Dynamic Model of Continental Europe

The model describes the general dynamic behaviour of the ENTSO-E Continental Europe power system and is suitable for transient analysis. The model is able to represent the main frequency response of the system as well as the main inter-area oscillation modes.

The use of this model is recommended exclusively under the supervision of ENTSO-E dynamic experts. A party wishing to access the Initial Dynamic Models provided by ENTSO-E will be required to sign a Request Form that inlcudes non-disclosure provisions. If you are a University use The Request Form for Universities.

Please note that the model cannot be delivered to private persons. A legal entity has to sign the The Request Form and take over the responsibilities stemming from it.

Please send the filled-in and signed Request Form to the following address: ENTSO-E, Initial Dynamic Model, Avenue de Cortenbergh 100, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium.

The validity of the The Request will be checked. Please expect that ENTSO-E dynamic experts will contact you to discuss the usability of the model for your project. It is expected that the model will be used for research. It will be delivered by mail containing a link for downloading the requested proprietary format of the model.

Initial Dynamic Model Technical Description

In order to simplify the model and be able to make the network data available to third parties, a few simplifications and anonymisation steps were performed. However, all these adjustments were done in such a way that the dynamic behaviour of the power system is not affected. More details can be found in the Initial Dynamic Model Instruction manual.

The model is currently available in PowerFactory, Netomac, Eurostag, and PSS/E proprietary formats.

[Paper] Dynamic Study Model for the Interconnected Power System of Continental Europe in Different Simulation Tools​

This paper presented at​ PowerTech Eindhoven 2015 conference (Towards Future Power Systems and Emerging Technologies), describes the development process of the Dynamic Study Model (DSM) for t​he synchronously interconnected power system of Continental Europe in different simulation tools.

Read the Paper

Continental Europe Operation Handbook

General part

IIntroductionFinal version
GGlossaryFinal version


P1Load-Frequency Control and PerformanceFinal version
P2Scheduling and AccountingFinal version
P3Operational SecurityFinal version
P4Co-ordinated Operational PlanningFinal version
P5Emergency OperationsFinal version
P6Communication InfrastructureFinal version
P7Data ExchangesFinal version
P8Operational TrainingFinal version


A1Load-Frequency Control and PerformanceFinal version
A2Scheduling and AccountingFinal version
A3Operational SecurityFinal version
A4Co-ordinated Operational PlanningFinal version
A8TerminologyFinal version

Reference Documents​

Implementation Guide for the ESS in the UCTE p​rocesses (i.e. SO-SO Matching Guide)

The Operation Handbook is divided into three parts:

  • General part comprising the introduction and the glossary of terms
  • Policies comprising technical criteria, requirements, standards, procedures and measures
  • Appendices with technical description of the subject

It is recommended to start with the introduction document (I). Basic principles and frameworks for the complete handbook are described here in detail. Moreover, the introduction includes the full table of operation policies that are part of the handbook.

The glossary of terms (G) needs to be consulted as a reference only. All terms written in capitals can be found here. In case of unknown terms, acronyms or units please refer to this glossary for definitions and explanations.

For reading a policy (policies are numbered by #) it is recommended to start with the introduction of the policy and to consult the corresponding appendices (A#) before reading the requirements, standards and guidelines. The appendices usually give a general motivation and technical description of the subjects that is required for reading the policies.

The policies themselves (P#) are organised in independent chapters (starting with A), each of them in sections with numbered paragraphs. Before reading a policy it is necessary to have background knowledge on the subjects concerned. Internal references may point to other paragraphs of this policy before or after the current paragraph, external references may point to other policies or appendices as well.

Revision of Emergency Operations (Policy 5) of the Continental Europe Operation Handbook

What has been updated:

  • A new definition for total load. This definition will be used when TSOs design the schemes for disconnection of demand at low frequency level. The new definition takes into account the percentage of connected renewable energy sources with the overall objective to minimize the disconnection of generation connected to distribution systems. In order to optimize performance of the demand disconnection scheme, the new definition of total load takes into account the percentage of renewable energy sources connected to distribution systems with the overall objective to guarantee that renewable generation units remain connected under a demand disconnection situation.
  • Detailed description of roles and responsibilities of TSOs in the restoration processes: this framework ensures coordination of national control centres and ensures efficient management of wide area emergency situations under challenging time constraints. Through these processes TSOs can bring the system back to the normal operating conditions and minimize the impact for consumers.
  • Updated TSO/DSO coordination framework: this framework addresses the importance of the TSO/DSO coordination in the management of emergency situations in the planning phase (design of defence plans ) as well as in the operational processes in real-time emergency situations.


​​​​​​​​​​​​​The below reports and publications concern ENTSO-E’s Nordic region.

Agreements and Principles


Mid-term adequacy forecast












Studies on frequency stability in the Nordic system

The Nordic Transmission System Operators (Energinet, Fingrid, Statnett and Svenska kraftnät) have through the Nordic Analysis Group (NAG) carried out several parallel projects within the domain of automatic frequency control with frequency quality and stability as the main objective.

The project portfolio has consisted of evaluating the performance of and requirements on

  1. Frequency containment process (FCP)
  2. System inertia
  3. Frequency quality
  4. Under frequency load shedding (UFLS)

The goals, results and next steps for each of the individual projects are presented in a high level executive summary​.

The individual project reports can be downloaded here:

Reports on f​uture system inertia

Fault Statistics

Workshop Material

Technical cooperation with third-country TSOs

This document provides recommendations for the cooperation of ENTSO-E with third-country TSOs and is adopted in accordance with Article 8(3)(c) Regulation (EC) No 714 / 2009. In this document, the role of ENTSO-E is to facilitate the cooperation and coordination between TSOs to ensure effective and transparent access to the transmission networks and to provide coordinated and forward-looking planning. Supporting the technical evolution of the transmission system, including the creation of interconnection capacities with third-party TSOs, is a fundamental aspect of ENTSO-E’s remit. Sharing best practices on traditional and new issues will help all involved parties on their way towards a sustainable energy future.

In maintaining and continuously improving these recommendations, ENTSO-E will continue to review and update these recommendations, taking into account practical experience of their implementation. In addition, ENTSO-E intends in the future to consult with third-country TSOs with the intention of making changes that would be beneficial to this framework for technical cooperation.

Managing critical grid situations - Success and Challenges

The report looks at the consequences on systems and markets in the most impacted countries. If the report shows good cooperation notably through Regional Service Coordinators in Western Europe, the cooperation in South East Europe seems to have suffered from a lack of policy and regulatory alignment.

The report lists a series of recommendations like the enhancement of the methodology used in Outlooks to cover more adequacy risks. Today the methodology is not able to forecast situations like the South East Europe January 2017 cold spell. ENTSO-E is committed to make these improvements in time for the next winter outlook.

On net generating capacity, the decrease of fossil fuel (except gas) and the increase in wind and solar is confirmed compared to last summer.

Read Managing critical grid situations - Success and Challenges​​

Annex - A market analysis of the January 2017 cold spell in Europe

View original news release →

Further Reports and Studies

January 2019 CE Significant Frequency Deviations

Read the report


If the report you are looking for is not contained in the page above, you should try the system operations reports archive.

Archived Reports